A treaty with Canada and Mexico protects cormorants. Vermont Fish and Wildlife has been trying to get a permit to control cormorants from the US Fish and Wildlife for ten years. According to Garland they are not too optimistic about getting this permit. Instead, they are working with the US Department of Agriculture's Wildlife Services program that allows private landowners to receive assistance in controlling cormorants and sea gulls.
Lake Champlain's cormorant population has risen dramatically in the past decade. Only one pair of cormorants could be found nesting in Vermont in the 1980's compared to an estimated 4,000 nesting pairs in 1997. A 1996 study conducted by Margaret Fowle, from the University of Vermont, claims that small yellow perch, rather than more prized catches, make up over 80% of the cormorant diet of about a pound of fish per day.